Main Article Content
Kotawaringin is the name of a small kingdom founded in the first half of the 17th century, centered in Kotawaringin Lama on the upper reaches of Sungai Lamandau, in southwestern Kalimantan. In the early 19th century the royal capital was moved to Pangkalan Bun. The shift of the capital city is an important factor in the history of human geography as a cause of changes in demography and urbanization. This research aimed to find clarity about the agglomeration of river cities in terms of symbolic and pragmatic aspects. Such aspects include the origin, existence, reasons for shifting capital and the type of culture that underlies the function of Kotawaringin as a center of government and trade that grew during the early colonial period. The research used methods which were carried out by observing sites indicated as capitals and ports, combining it with studies of historical sources, as well as collecting physical evidence, including a number of symbolic objects associated with royal legitimacy. Results of contextual analysis provide a set of knowledge about the growth of river city as the implementation of the spatial planning policy of the government and the support of urban communities rooted in Malay culture. The Kingdom of Kotawaringin reached a peak of progress during the reign of Prince Ratu Imanuddin, after the capital was moved to Pangkalan Bun from Kotawaringin Lama. The location of the new capital is on the lower reaches of the Sungai Lamandau, precisely on the banks of the Sungai Arut, which was formerly called Bandar Sukabumi.
Kotawaringin adalah nama sebuah kerajaan kecil yang didirikan pada paruh pertama abad ke-17 Masehi, berpusat di Kotawaringin Lama di kawasan hulu Sungai Lamandau, di barat daya Kalimantan. Pada awal abad ke-19 Masehi, ibukota kerajaan dipindahkan ke Pangkalan Bun. Pergeseran ibukota merupakan faktor penting dalam sejarah geografi manusia sebagai penyebab perubahan demografi dan urbanisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kejelasan tentang aglomerasi kota sungai ditinjau dari aspek simbolik dan pragmatis. Aspek-aspek tersebut mencakup asal usul, keberadaan, alasan perpindahan ibukota dan jenis budaya yang mendasari fungsi Kotawaringin sebagai pusat pemerintahan dan perdagangan yang tumbuh pada masa kolonial awal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode yang dilakukan dengan mengamati situs-situs yang diindikasikan sebagai ibukota dan pelabuhan, memadukannya dengan studi sumber-sumber sejarah, serta mengumpulkan bukti-bukti fisik, termasuk sejumlah benda simbolis yang terkait dengan legitimasi kerajaan. Hasil analisis kontekstual memberikan seperangkat pengetahuan tentang pertumbuhan kota sungai sebagai implementasi kebijakan perencanaan tata ruang pemerintah, dan dukungan masyarakat kota yang berakar pada budaya Melayu. Kerajaan Kotawaringin mencapai puncak kemajuan pada masa pemerintahan Pangeran Ratu Imanuddin, setelah ibu kota dipindahkan ke Pangkalan Bun dari Kotawaringin Lama. Lokasi ibu kota baru berada di bagian hilir Sungai Lamandau, tepatnya di tepi Sungai Arut yang dahulu dinamai Bandar Sukabumi.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions of Publication
Â 1. As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
- make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use;
- make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g. via an e-mail list or list server);
- present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such meeting;
- for your employer, if the article is a â€˜work for hireâ€™, made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g. training);
- retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the article;
- include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially);
- use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal); and prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal;
- may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the article, material extracted from the article, or derivative works for the authorâ€™s personal use or for company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies Naditira Widya endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
All copies, print or electronic, or other use of the paper or article must include the appropriate bibliographic citation for the articleâ€™s publication in the journal.
2. Requests from third parties
Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the article in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use. Requests for all uses not included above, including the authorization of third parties to reproduce or otherwise use all or part of the article (including figures and tables), should be referred to Naditira Widya by going to our website at http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id
Â 3. Author Online Use
- Personal Servers. Authors and/or their employers shall have the right to post the accepted version of articles pre-print version of the article, or revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on their own personal servers or the servers of their institutions or employers without permission from Naditira Widya, provided that the posted version includes a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice and, when published, a full citation to the original publication, including a link to the article abstract in the journal homepage. Authors shall not post the final, published versions of their papers;
- Classroom or Internal Training Use. An author is expressly permitted to post any portion of the accepted version of his/her own articles on the authorâ€™s personal web site or the servers of the authorâ€™s institution or company in connection with the authorâ€™s teaching, training, or work responsibilities, provided that the appropriate copyright, credit, and reuse notices appear prominently with the posted material. Examples of permitted uses are lecture materials, course packs, e-reserves, conference presentations, or in-house training courses;
- Electronic Preprints. Before submitting an article to an Naditira Widya, authors frequently post their manuscripts to their own web site, their employerâ€™s site, or to another server that invites constructive comment from colleagues. Upon submission of an article to Naditira Widya, an author is required to transfer copyright in the article to Naditira Widya, and the author must update any previously posted version of the article with a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice. Upon publication of an article by the Naditira Widya, the author must replace any previously posted electronic versions of the article with either (1) the full citation to the work with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or link to the article abstract in Naditira Widya homepage, or (2) the accepted version only (not the final, published version), including the Naditira Widya copyright notice and full citation, with a link to the final, published article in journal homepage.
4. Articles in Press (AiP) service
Naditira Widya may choose to publish an abstract or portions of the paper before we publish it in the journal. Please contact our Production department immediately if you do not want us to make any such prior publication for any reason, including disclosure of a patentable invention.
5. Author/Employer Rights
If you are employed and prepared the article on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the article belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, Naditira Widya assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
Â 6. Naditira Widya Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of Naditira Widya to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of the Naditira Widya, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others. Naditira Widya distributes its technical publications throughout the world and does so by various means such as hard copy, microfiche, microfilm, and electronic media. It also abstracts and may translate its publications, and articles contained therein, for inclusion in various compendiums, collective works, databases and similar publications.
Naditira Widya byÂ Balai Arkeologi Kalimantan SelatanÂ is licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available atÂ http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id/