Main Article Content
Penelitian ini difokuskan untuk menguraikan pesan-pesan yang terkandung dalam relief-relief Candi Sukuh yang dianggap tabu. Studi ini dilakukan karena Candi Sukuh dapat menjadi bukti bahwa jauh sebelum adanya gerakan feminisme, masyarakat berlatar agama Hindu-Buddha pada masa lampau telah mengakui perbedaan antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Perbedaan tersebut merupakan suatu konstruksi sosial yang dimengerti dalam hubungan kompromi laki-laki dan perempuan. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah deskriptif-interpretatif, dan data dianalisis dengan pendekatan multidesain. Teori Ikonografi digunakan untuk menganalisis pesan dari relief-relief Candi Sukuh, sedangkan teori feminisme diterapkan dengan pendekatan tubuh, seks, dan gender. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya pesan feminisme pada relief kidung Sudhāmālā, relief linggā dan yoni, dan relief kālāmĕrgā. Kesimpulannya pesan gender yang disajikan di relief-relief Candi Sukuh berupa penolakan perempuan terhadap pengobjekan tubuhnya oleh laki-laki, yang dianggap memiliki otoritas terhadap tubuh perempuan.
This research is focused to describe the messages contained in the reliefs of Candi Sukuh, which are considered taboo. This study was conducted because Candi Sukuh may well be an evidence that long before the existence of the feminism movement, the Hindu-Buddhist communities in the past have recognized differences between men and women. Such difference is a social construct which was understood in terms of compromising relations between men and women. The method used in this research was descriptive-interpretive, and data were analyzed using a multi-design approach. Theories of iconography were used to analyze messages of the reliefs of Candi Sukuh, whereas the theory of feminism was applied using approaches of body, sex and gender. Research results showed messages of feminism are contained in the Sudhāmālā hymn, reliefs of linggā and yoni, and the kālāmĕrgā relief. Conclusively, gender messages presented by the reliefs of Candi Sukuh informs the rejection of objectification of women’s body by men, who are considered to have authority over women's bodies.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions of Publication
Â 1. As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
- make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use;
- make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g. via an e-mail list or list server);
- present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such meeting;
- for your employer, if the article is a â€˜work for hireâ€™, made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g. training);
- retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the article;
- include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially);
- use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal); and prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal;
- may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the article, material extracted from the article, or derivative works for the authorâ€™s personal use or for company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies Naditira Widya endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
All copies, print or electronic, or other use of the paper or article must include the appropriate bibliographic citation for the articleâ€™s publication in the journal.
2. Requests from third parties
Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the article in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use. Requests for all uses not included above, including the authorization of third parties to reproduce or otherwise use all or part of the article (including figures and tables), should be referred to Naditira Widya by going to our website at http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id
Â 3. Author Online Use
- Personal Servers. Authors and/or their employers shall have the right to post the accepted version of articles pre-print version of the article, or revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on their own personal servers or the servers of their institutions or employers without permission from Naditira Widya, provided that the posted version includes a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice and, when published, a full citation to the original publication, including a link to the article abstract in the journal homepage. Authors shall not post the final, published versions of their papers;
- Classroom or Internal Training Use. An author is expressly permitted to post any portion of the accepted version of his/her own articles on the authorâ€™s personal web site or the servers of the authorâ€™s institution or company in connection with the authorâ€™s teaching, training, or work responsibilities, provided that the appropriate copyright, credit, and reuse notices appear prominently with the posted material. Examples of permitted uses are lecture materials, course packs, e-reserves, conference presentations, or in-house training courses;
- Electronic Preprints. Before submitting an article to an Naditira Widya, authors frequently post their manuscripts to their own web site, their employerâ€™s site, or to another server that invites constructive comment from colleagues. Upon submission of an article to Naditira Widya, an author is required to transfer copyright in the article to Naditira Widya, and the author must update any previously posted version of the article with a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice. Upon publication of an article by the Naditira Widya, the author must replace any previously posted electronic versions of the article with either (1) the full citation to the work with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or link to the article abstract in Naditira Widya homepage, or (2) the accepted version only (not the final, published version), including the Naditira Widya copyright notice and full citation, with a link to the final, published article in journal homepage.
4. Articles in Press (AiP) service
Naditira Widya may choose to publish an abstract or portions of the paper before we publish it in the journal. Please contact our Production department immediately if you do not want us to make any such prior publication for any reason, including disclosure of a patentable invention.
5. Author/Employer Rights
If you are employed and prepared the article on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the article belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, Naditira Widya assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
Â 6. Naditira Widya Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of Naditira Widya to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of the Naditira Widya, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others. Naditira Widya distributes its technical publications throughout the world and does so by various means such as hard copy, microfiche, microfilm, and electronic media. It also abstracts and may translate its publications, and articles contained therein, for inclusion in various compendiums, collective works, databases and similar publications.
Naditira Widya byÂ Balai Arkeologi Kalimantan SelatanÂ is licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available atÂ http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id/
Cholis, Henry. 2019. Makna Lingga Yoni di Pintu Gerbang Candi Sukuh. Surakarta: Institut Seni Indonesia Surakarta.
Dalimoenthe, Ikhlasiah. 2011. “Perempuan Dalam Cengkeraman HIV/AIDS: Kajian Sosiologis Feminis Perempuan Ibu Rumah Tangga.” Jurnal Komunitas 5(1):41–48.
Dewi, Saras. 2013. “Budaya Erotika Timur.” Jurnal Our Voice Indonesia: 1-3
Djoeffan, Sri Hidayati. 2001. “Gerakan Feminisme Di Indonesia: Tantangan Dan Strategi Mendatang.” Mimbar: Jurnal Sosial Dan Pembangunan 17(3):284–300.
Gunawan, Aditia. 2016. “Produksi Naskah Dan Mistisisme Aksara Dalam Bhīma Svarga.” Manuskripta 6(1):11–39.
Hidayati, Siti Nurul. 2006. “Optimalisasi Situs Candi Sukuh Dan Candi Cetho Dalam Pengembangan Pariwisata.” UNS (Sebelas Maret University).
Kieven, Lydia. 2014. “Simbolisme Cerita Panji Dalam Relief-Relief Di Candi Zaman Majapahit Dan Nilainya Pada Masa Kini.” in A seminar paper ‘Cerita Panji Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Seminar Naskah Panji’in Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia (Jakarta, 28/29 October 2014).
Mufida, Riha Rahma. 2013. “Cerita-Cerita di Balik Candi Sukuh Sebagai Pemerkaya Cerita Drama Tradisional.” Proceeding 1(1):13–24.
Munandar, Agus Aris. 2004. “Karya Sastra Jawa Kuno yang Diabadikan Pada Relief Candi-Candi Abad Ke-13—15 M.” Makara Seri Sosial Humaniora 8(2): 54-60.
Panofsky, Erwin. 1979. Meaning In The Visual Arts: Papers In And On Art History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Prabasmoro, Aquarini Priyatna. 2006. Kajian Budaya Feminis: Tubuh, Sastra, dan Budaya Pop. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.
Purwadi dan Eko Priyo Purnomo. 2008. Kamus Sansekerta Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Budaya Jawa
Saringendyanti, E. 2008. “Candi Sukuh Dan Ceto Di Kawasan Gunung Lawu: Peranannya Pada Abad 14–15 Masehi.” Makalah Hasil Penelitian. Bandung: Universitas Padjadjaran.
Savitri, Mimi. 2012. “Bias Gender: Masalah Utama Dalam Interpretasi Arkeologi.” Jurnal Humaniora 19(2):161–67.
Setiawan, Restu Budi, Sahid Teguh Widodo, dan Suyitno Suyitno. 2018. “Kajian Struktural Wanda Wayang Durga Dalam Perspekstif Cerita Pewayangan Sudamala Dan Budaya Jawa (Structural Study of Wanda Wayang Durga in Perspective of Sudamala Puppet Story and Javanese Culture).” Widyaparwa 46(1):17–29.
Soetarno, R. 1986. Aneka Candi Kuno Di Indonesia. Dahara Prize.
Tim Kepustakaan Candi. 2014. “Candi Sukuh (Jawa Tengah)-Kepustakaan Candi.” Perpusnas 1. Diunduh 9 Februari 2020 (https://candi.perpusnas.go.id/temples/deskripsi-jawa_tengah-candi_sukuh).
Tim Penyusun, KBBI. 2008. “Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia.” Jakarta: Balai Pustaka
Wawan, Putu. 2015. “Lingga Yoni.” Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia 1. Diunduh 8 Februari (http://phdi.or.id/artikel/lingga-yoni).
Wirakusumah, Indri A. 2017. “Langgam Arsitektur Candi Sukuh.” Media Matrasain 14(1):49–60.
Wollstonecraft, Mary. 1995. Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Men and A Vindication of the Rights of
Woman and Hints. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Zoetmulder, Petrus Josephus dan Stuart O. Robson. 1995. Kamus Jawa Kuna-Indonesia: PY. Vol. 2. Jakarta Perwakilan Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal, Land-, en Volkenkunde: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.