AN ECO-MATERIAL CULTURAL STUDY ON BIRD TRAPS AMONG THE PALAWAN OF THE PHILIPPINES (STUDI BUDAYA EKOLOGI DAN MATERIAL PERANGKAP BURUNG PADA MASYARAKAT PALAWAN DI PULAU PALAWAN, FILIPINA)

Takashi Tsuji

Abstract

This study clarifies how eco-material culture is exemplified in bird traps and the use in the environment in terms of: 1) the ecological aspects and material culture of bird traps; 2) the practicality of trapping techniques; and 3) the relationships among bird traps, birds, and people from an ethno-archaeological viewpoint. The research target is the Palawan, an indigenous people of Palawan Island, the Philippines. The research methods are interviews and participant observation. The research suggests that current bird traps are made of plant materials with nylon for convenience, but plant materials remain fundamental. Further, since Palawan bird-trapping technology is unrefined, and as traps are sometimes unsuccessful, trapping is likely done for enjoyment and as a challenge. Thus, bird traps connect humans to nature, as reflected in the Palawan’s eco-material culture.

 

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menjelaskan perangkap burung yang menggunakan bahan-bahan dari tanaman dan penggunaannya di lingkungan, serta membahas tentang: 1) aspek budaya ekologi dan material dari perangkap burung; 2) teknologi perangkap burung; dan 3) hubungan antara burung, perangkap burung, dan manusia dari sudut pandang etnoarkeologi. Metode penelitian ini adalah wawancara dan observasi partisipan. Target penelitian adalah penduduk asli Pulau Palawan di Filipina. Penulis memastikan bahwa perangkap burung yang biasa digunakan pada masa kini dibuat dari bahan tanaman dan plastik nilon untuk kemudahan. Sementara itu, masyarakat Palawan masih menggunakan bahanbahan tanaman sebagai bahan utama dalam membuat perangkap burung, dan teknologi yang digunakan merupakan perkembangan dari metode perangkap tradisional. Tujuan masyarakat Palawan menggunakan perangkap bukan sematamata untuk menangkap burung, tetapi untuk menakut-nakutinya juga agar penduduk dapat hidup berdampingan dengan burung di lingkungannya. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa perangkap burung merupakan alat yang digunakan oleh masyarakat setempat untuk hidup berdampingan dengan burung dan merefleksikan prinsip hidup masyarakat alami yang hidup berpusat pada budaya ekosistem dan material.

Keywords

Bird traps, eco-material culture, the Philippines, Palawan Island, Palawan people (Perangkap burung, budaya ekologi dan material, Filipina, pulau Palawan, masyarakat Palawan)

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