PERANAN SUNGAI BARITO DALAM PERSEBARAN SUKU DAYAK DI KALIMANTAN BAGIAN TENGGARA

Hartatik Hartatik
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Abstract

Abstrak. Sungai Barito merupakan sungai besar yang berhulu di Pegunungan Schwaner Muller di bagian utara Kalimantan Tengah dan bermuara di Banjarmasin menuju Laut Jawa. Sebagai sungai terpanjang di Kalimantan, sungai ini terkenal sejak ratusan tahun silam hingga kini. Berbagai mitos dan legenda tercipta di sekitar aliran sungai ini. Situs-situ kuno bertebaran dari hilir hingga hulu sungai, seperti situs Kerajaan Banjar di Banjarmasin, situs Patih Muhur di Batola, dan permukiman suku Dayak di bagian tengah hingga hulu Sungai Barito. Artikel ini akan membahas tentang keberadaan Sungai Barito (dan anak sungainya) kaitannya dengan persebaran suku Dayak di Kalimantan bagian tenggara. Tujuan dari tulisan ini adalah mengetahui persebaran suku Dayak berdasar persebaran data arkeologi, sejarah dan tradisi di sepanjang Sungai Barito dan anak-anak sungainya di bagian tenggara Kalimantan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah deskriptip dengan penalaran induktif. Data diperoleh dari berbagai sumber terutama hasil penelitian Balai Arleologi Kalimantan Selatan dan studi pustaka. Keberadaan sungai berpengaruh pada konsep religi dan bentuk pola hunian. Dalam konsep religi, Sungai Barito sering disebut dalam mantra balian sebagai tempat tinggal pidara. Dari hasil analisis pemanfaatan ruang dan persebaran hunian diketahui pola hunian yang cenderung mengelompok tidak jauh dari sungai, meskipun ada juga yang memanjang di tepi sungai. Persebaran suku Dayak di Kalimantan bagian tenggara dimungkinkan melalui sungai Barito dan anak-anak sungainya, seperti Sungai Negara dan Martapura.

Kata Kunci : Sungai Barito, persebaran, suku Dayak, situs, balian

Abstract. Barito River is a large river headwaters in Schwaner Muller Mountains in the northern part of Central Kalimantan and empties in Banjarmasin to the Java Sea. As the longest river in Kalimantan, the river is famous since hundreds of years ago to the present. Various myths and legends created around this river. Site-fashioned situ scattered from downstream to upstream, such as the site of Banjar Kingdom in Banjarmasin, Patih Muhur sites in Batola, and settlement Dayak tribe in the middle to upper Barito River. This article will discuss about the existence of the Barito River (and its tributaries) relation with the spread of the Dayak tribe in southeast Kalimantan. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of the Dayak tribe-based distribution of archaeological data, historical and tradition along the Barito River and its tributaries in the southeastern region of Kalimantan. The method used is descriptive with inductive reasoning. Data obtained from various sources specially the results of Balai Arkeologi Kalimantan Selatan research, and supported by the literature. The existence of rivers affects the religion concept occupancy patterns and shapes. In the religion concept, the Barito River often called in the balian spell as a residence of pidara. The results of spatial analysis and settlement spread known that patterns of occupancy is cluster near the river, although there is elongated riverside. The spread of the Dayak tribe in the southeastern part of Kalimantan possible through of the Barito River and its tributaries, such as the Negara River and Martapura River.

Key Words : Barito River, spread, Dayak tribes, sites, balian

Keywords

Sungai Barito, persebaran, suku Dayak, situs, balian
Copyright (c) 2017 Naditira Widya
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