PERSEBARAN ARCA BUDDHA ABAD KE-7-9 MASEHI: HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN PERKEMBANGAN KAWASAN AWAL KERAJAAN SRIWIJAYA
Pada daerah aliran Sungai Musi dan Batanghari di Sumatera, terdapat sebaran arca-arca Buddha dari abad ke-7 hingga ke-10 Masehi. Berdasarkan karakteristiknya, maka dapat diketahui pengaruh kebudayaan pembuatannya, serta kronologi pembuatannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memahami perkembangan wilayah pengaruh agama Buddha dan kawasan politik dan agama Kerajaan Sriwijaya pada abad ke-7-9 Masehi berdasarkan pengamatan karakteristik arca Buddha. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode seriasi terhadap tipe dan bentuk arca untuk mengetahui pola sebaran situs yang dipengaruhi oleh perkembangan agama Buddha pada masa tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lokasi-lokasi ditemukannya arca-arca Buddha selaras dengan perkembangan kebudayaan dan aktivitas politik masyarakat kerajaan Sriwijaya pada abad ke-7-9 Masehi. Perkembangan tersebut diawali dari hilir daerah aliran Sungai Musi, dan bergerak ke arah hulu daerah aliran Sungai Batanghari. Pada skala makro, tampak pula perkembangan kawasan pengaruh kebudayaannya mulai dari Sumatera bagian selatan ke Jambi, Sumatera bagian barat, dan Aceh.
A number of 7th-9th centuries Buddhist statues are found distributed on the catchment areas of Sungai Musi and Sungai Batanghari, in Sumatera. The characteristics of Buddhist statues may suggest the cultural influence of their manufacture, as well as the technology and chronology. The purpose of this study is to understand the development of the area of influence of Buddhism and the political and religious region of the Sriwijaya Kingdom in the 7th-9th centuries, based on observing the characteristics of Buddha statues. This research was conducted using the seriation method on the type and shape of the statues to determine the distribution patterns of sites that were influenced by the development of Buddhism at that time. The results showed that the locations where the Buddha statues were found were in accord with the cultural developments and political activities of the people of the Sriwijaya kingdom in the 7th-9th centuries. This development began from the downstream regions of the Musi River catchment and moves towards the upstream regions of the Batanghari River catchment. On a macro scale, the regional development of the culture-influenced commenced from southern Sumatra upwards to Jambi, western Sumatra and Aceh.
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