KAJIAN ELEMEN ESTETIS DAN SIMBOLIS CANDRASENGAKALA PADA TAMANSARI GUA SUNYARAGI DI CIREBON
Candrasengkala atau kronogram sudah dikenal oleh masyarakat di Jawa sejak zaman Hindu di Nusantara. Candrasengkala merupakan tetenger atau pengingat suatu peristiwa penting, seperti kelahiran, kematian, dan sebagainya. Dalam candrasengkala digunakan bentuk visual figur binatang yang diambil dari cerita pewayangan atau mitologi India. Binatang-binatang ditampilkan dengan pengolahan visual berupa gambar, relief, dan patung. Masing-masing figur binatang tersebut mengandung watak angka tahun dan makna simbolis. Hingga sekarang masih sedikit penelitian yang mengkaji candrasengkala di Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi di Cirebon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui elemen estetis dan simbolis figur binatang pada candrasengkala yang terdapat di Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi, di Cirebon, Jawa Barat. Penelitian ini merupakan kajian deskriptif terhadap aspek tangible Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi berupa figur-figur binatang yang dilandasi mitologi India. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa material batu dan batu karang diolah menjadi karakter-karakter figur gajah, burung garuda, dan ular, sehingga tampilan visualnya membentuk “candrasengkala”, sekaligus sebagai cuplikan kisah dari cerita pewayangan. Dengan demikian, dapat dipahami bahwa candrasengkala merupakan salah satu bentuk seni rupa Nusantara dan kreativitas kearifan lokal. Keberadaanya dapat menjadi sumber inspirasi dalam pengembangan karya seni rupa, desain, dan kriya Nusantara ke depan. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi referensi tentang kajian binatang-binatang mitologis dalam candrasengkala di Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi.
The Javanese are familiar with “candrasengkala” or chronogram which developed in Nusantara since the Hindu era. The “candrasengkala” is a “tetenger” or a reminder of important occurrences, such as birth, death, etc. “Candrasengkala” often uses visual forms of animal figures drawn from “wayang” stories or Indian mythology. Animals are featured with visual processing into depictions of figures, reliefs, and sculptures. Each animal figure contains disposition number of years and bears symbolic meanings. Until today there is little research that focuses on “candrasengkala” in Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi in Cirebon. This study aims to determine the aesthetic and symbolic elements of animal figures in “candrasengkala” at Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi, in Cirebon, West Java. This research is a descriptive study of the tangible aspects of Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi in the form of animal figures based on Indian mythology. The study resulted that stone and coral materials are processed into figures of elephants, eagles, and snakes, thus the visual appearance forms a "candrasengkala", as well as snippets of “wayang” stories. Therefore, it is understood that “candrasengkala” is a form of Nusantara art and creativity of local wisdom. Its existence can be a source of inspiration in the future development of Nusantara fine arts, designs and crafts. This research may be used as a reference for further studies of mythological animals in “candrasengkala” at Tamansari Gua Sunyaragi.
Adi, Febrian Wisnu Adi. 2013. “Sengkalan, makna penanda dalam bentuk kalimat atau gambar indah sebagai bahasa komunikasi seni.” Corak 2(2):70–75. doi: 10.24821/corak.v2i2.2336.
Andayani , Firda Rasyidian dan Yuswadi Saliya,. 2019. “Spatial principles and ornamentation on water garden relics of Kesultanan Cirebon case study: Witana Water Garden, Pakungwati Water Garden, and Sunyaragi Water Garden.” Riset Arsitektur (RISA) 3(04):363–80. doi: 10.26593/risa.v3i04.3520.363-380.
Asteja, Mustaqim. 2016. Nawawarsa Kendi Pertula - PUSTAKA CIREBON Kumpulan Makalah Kendi Pertula. Cirebon.
Behrend, Timothy E. 1984. “Kraton, Taman, Mesjid: A brief survey and bibliographic review of Islamic antiquities in Java.” Indonesia Circle. School of Oriental & African Studies. Newsletter 12(35):29–55. doi: 10.1080/03062848408729594.
Bratakesawa, Raden. 1980. Keterangan Candrasengkala. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.
Daliman, A. 2012. Makna Sengkalan sebagai Dinamika Kesadaran Historis. Yogyakarta: Ombak.
Ekadjati, Edi S. 2005. Sunan Gunung Jati - Penyebar Dan Penegak Islam Di Tatar Sunda. Jakarta: PT Dunia Pustaka Jaya.
Gazali, Muhammad. 2017. “Lukisan prasejarah Gua Leang-Leang, Kabupaten Maros, Sulawesi Selatan: Kajian simbol S.K. Langer.” Imaji 15(1):57-67. doi: 10.21831/imaji.v15i1.13886.
Holt, Claire. 2000. Melacak Jejak Perkembangan Seni Di Indonesia. Bandung: Masyarakat Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia.
Kusdiwanggo, Susilo. 2017. “Membaca dualism-antithesis dan dualism-harmony sebagai dasar memahami konsensus ruang nusantara.” Temu Ilmiah Ikatan Peneliti Lingkungan Binaan Indonesia 6:93-100. doi: 10.32315/ti.6.i093.
Listya, Ariefika, and Dendi Pratama. 2019. “Sengkalan memet : A chronogram visualized by Javanese through many stages of symbolizations.” In 3rd International and Interdisciplinary Cenference on Arts Creation and Studies (IICACS):34–42.
Lombard, Denys. 2005. NUSA JAWA: SILANG BUDAYA - Bagian 3: Warisan Kerajaan-Kerajaan Konsentris. cetakan ke. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
Paramarini, W.S. Fransiska dan Kamal A. Arief. 2019. “Wadasan as an architectural element in Gua Sunyaragi Water Park, Cirebon.” Riset Arsitektur (RISA) 3(01):51–70. doi: 10.26593/risa.v3i01.3177.51-70.
Pujianto, Franseno. 2012. “Desain lansekap taman sari objek studi: Goa Sunyaragi Cirebon.” Laporan Penelitian, LPPM-UNPAR. Bandung: Jurusan Arsitektur, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan.
Purnomo, Agus Dody; Ardianto Nugroho; Anggoro Cipto Ismoyo. 2021. “Sengkalan memet pada Cagar Budaya Cirebon.” Jurnal Rupa 5(2):81. doi: 10.25124/rupa.v5i2.2819.
Rosmalia, Dini, and L. Edhi Prasetya. 2017. “Kosmologi Elemen Lanskap Budaya Cirebon.” Seminar Ikatan Peneliti Lingkungan Binaan Indonesia (1):73–82. doi: 10.32315/sem.1.b073.
Rusyanti. 2013. “Peranan Tan Sam Cai Kong dalam Sejarah Cirebon.” Purbawidya 2(1):105–17.
Sudadi. 2018. Sengkalan--Angka Tahun dibalik Ungkapan Jawa. Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa.
Sulendraningrat, Pangeran Sulaiman. 1985. Sejarah Cirebon. Jakarta: PN Balai Pustaka.
Tjandrasasmita, Uka. 2009. Arkeologi Islam Nusantara. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Sejarah dan Purbakala, Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata.
Yudoseputro, Wiyoso. 2008. Jejak-Jejak Tradisi Bahasa Rupa Indonesia Lama. Jakarta: Yayasan Seni Visual Indonesia - IKJ.
Yustana, Prima. 2016. “Gajah dalam terakota Majapahit.” Dewa Ruci 7(1):102–14.
Zuhdi, Susanto. 1996. Cirebon Sebagai Bandar Jalur Sutra -- Kumpulan Makalah Diskusi Ilmiah. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia.
Copyright (c) 2022 Naditira Widya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions of Publication
Â 1. As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
- make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use;
- make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g. via an e-mail list or list server);
- present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such meeting;
- for your employer, if the article is a â€˜work for hireâ€™, made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g. training);
- retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the article;
- include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially);
- use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal); and prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal;
- may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the article, material extracted from the article, or derivative works for the authorâ€™s personal use or for company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies Naditira Widya endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
All copies, print or electronic, or other use of the paper or article must include the appropriate bibliographic citation for the articleâ€™s publication in the journal.
2. Requests from third parties
Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the article in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use. Requests for all uses not included above, including the authorization of third parties to reproduce or otherwise use all or part of the article (including figures and tables), should be referred to Naditira Widya by going to our website at http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id
Â 3. Author Online Use
- Personal Servers. Authors and/or their employers shall have the right to post the accepted version of articles pre-print version of the article, or revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on their own personal servers or the servers of their institutions or employers without permission from Naditira Widya, provided that the posted version includes a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice and, when published, a full citation to the original publication, including a link to the article abstract in the journal homepage. Authors shall not post the final, published versions of their papers;
- Classroom or Internal Training Use. An author is expressly permitted to post any portion of the accepted version of his/her own articles on the authorâ€™s personal web site or the servers of the authorâ€™s institution or company in connection with the authorâ€™s teaching, training, or work responsibilities, provided that the appropriate copyright, credit, and reuse notices appear prominently with the posted material. Examples of permitted uses are lecture materials, course packs, e-reserves, conference presentations, or in-house training courses;
- Electronic Preprints. Before submitting an article to an Naditira Widya, authors frequently post their manuscripts to their own web site, their employerâ€™s site, or to another server that invites constructive comment from colleagues. Upon submission of an article to Naditira Widya, an author is required to transfer copyright in the article to Naditira Widya, and the author must update any previously posted version of the article with a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice. Upon publication of an article by the Naditira Widya, the author must replace any previously posted electronic versions of the article with either (1) the full citation to the work with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or link to the article abstract in Naditira Widya homepage, or (2) the accepted version only (not the final, published version), including the Naditira Widya copyright notice and full citation, with a link to the final, published article in journal homepage.
4. Articles in Press (AiP) service
Naditira Widya may choose to publish an abstract or portions of the paper before we publish it in the journal. Please contact our Production department immediately if you do not want us to make any such prior publication for any reason, including disclosure of a patentable invention.
5. Author/Employer Rights
If you are employed and prepared the article on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the article belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, Naditira Widya assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
Â 6. Naditira Widya Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of Naditira Widya to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of the Naditira Widya, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others. Naditira Widya distributes its technical publications throughout the world and does so by various means such as hard copy, microfiche, microfilm, and electronic media. It also abstracts and may translate its publications, and articles contained therein, for inclusion in various compendiums, collective works, databases and similar publications.
Naditira Widya byÂ Balai Arkeologi Kalimantan SelatanÂ is licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available atÂ http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id/