VARIASI PERHIASAN KEPALA ARCA PARWATI KOLEKSI MUSEUM NASIONAL DI INDONESIA [THE VARIETY OF HEADDRESSES OF THE PARVATI STATUE COLLECTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM IN INDONESIA]
Pemujaan terhadap Parwati mendapatkan tempat yang penting pada era Hindu-Buddha di nusantara, sehubungan dengan kedudukan Parwati sebagai śakti dari dewa tertinggi dalam Śiwaisme, Dewa Śiwa. Hal ini ditunjukkan oleh keberadaan arca-arca dewi dan arca perwujudan ratu, yang beberapa di antaranya menjadi koleksi Museum Nasional di Indonesia. Akan tetapi, asal waktu dan identitas tokoh pada kebanyakan arca ini belum dapat diidentifikasi. Mahkota atau hiasan kepala sebagai bagian dari atribut (lakṣana) arca dapat digunakan sebagai sumber informasi melalui kajian terhadap gaya atau langgam estetika. Penelitian ini merupakan upaya untuk memahami variasi mahkota arca Parwati yang berasal dari era Majapahit, khususnya abad ke-14 M dan 15 M, berdasarkan identifikasi gaya seni dan kecenderungan penggambaran pada masa tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode deskriptif-komparatif dengan pendekatan ikonografi dan morfologi estetis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada dua kecenderungan penggambaran mahkota Parwati. Patung dari Kediri dan Blitar cenderung menggambarkan mahkota Parwati dengan bentuk yang mendekati langgam Klasik Awal (Jawa Tengah), dengan menampilkan mahkota semata-mata sesuai kanon Manasara, seperti jatāmakuta, kesabandha, dan kuntala. Kecenderungan kedua menampilkan Parwati mengenakan kirīṭamakuta, yang merupakan atribut Wisnu, dan penyejajaran sifat dan kedudukannya sebagai sosok pemelihara.
The worship of Parvati has an important place in the Hindu-Buddhist era in the Indonesian archipelago, with regard to Parvati's position as the spouse of the supreme god in Shivaism, Shiva. This is indicated by the presence of goddess statues and statues of the embodiment of a queen, which some are in the collections of the National Museum in Indonesia. However, the chronology and identity of the National Museum statues collection have not been distinguished. Information on both aspects of a statue can be achieved by means of the study of style or aesthetic of a crown or headdress as a feature of lakṣana (statue attribute). This research is an attempt to understand the varieties of the crowns of the Parwati statue from the Majapahit era, especially the 14th and 15th centuries, based on the identification of the art style and depiction tendencies during this period. This research was conducted using a descriptive-comparative method with approaches of iconography and aesthetic morphology. The results indicate that there are two trends in depicting Parwati’s crown. The statues from Kediri and Blitar tend to depict Parvati's crown in a form similar to those of the Early Classical (Central Javanese) style, by displaying the crown solely according to the scripture of Manasara, such as jatāmakuta, kesabandha, and kuntala. The second trend presents Parvati wearing the kirīṭamakuta, which is an attribute of Vishnu, which correlates to her nature and position as a guardian.
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