SURVEI SIDE SCAN SONAR DALAM PENELITIAN ARKEOLOGI BAWAH AIR DI PERAIRAN SUNGAI: STUDI KASUS PADA DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI BRANTAS [SIDE SCAN SONAR SURVEY IN RIVERINE UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH: CASE STUDY IN THE BRANTAS BASIN]
Aplikasi metode geofisika menggunakan side scan sonar dalam penelitian arkeologi bawah air belum banyak dilakukan di Indonesia. Tulisan ini memaparkan penggunaan side scan sonar untuk pemetaan dasar sungai dan identifikasi tinggalan arkeologi di dasar sungai dalam penelitian “Sungai Brantas dalam Perspektif Lanskap Kultur Maritim”, serta interpretasi hasil survei side scan sonar tersebut dalam konteks kesejarahan. Selain itu, dalam tulisan ini akan dibahas potensi pengembangan penggunaan side scan sonar dalam penelitian arkeologi bawah air di Indonesia, terutama di perairan sungai. Akuisisi data dilakukan dengan menggunakan side scan sonar Starfish 450H dengan sistem posisi GNSS Trimble R8s. Sementara itu, interpretasi diperoleh dengan melakukan analisis terhadap data peta dan arsip Belanda untuk memahami konteks temporal dari objek yang dideteksi oleh alat side scan sonar. Survei berhasil menunjukkan sedimen di dasar sungai berupa lempung dan lanau, serta beberapa objek yang diduga sebagai bangkai kapal, yang diperkirakan berasal dari pasca abad ke-19 Masehi. Hasil survei side scan sonar menunjukkan tingkat akurasi cukup hingga tinggi dan dapat menjadi pendukung penelitian arkeologi bawah air yang efisien, terutama di perairan yang keruh.
Side scan sonar survey as one of the geophysics methods is still scarcely applied in underwater archaeological research in Indonesia. This paper describes the application of side scan sonar survey in mapping riverbed and identifying underwater archaeological remains in the “Sungai Brantas in the Perspective of Maritime Cultural Landscape” project, as well as interpreting its historical context based on survey results. This paper also explores the development of utilizing side scan sonar in underwater archaeological research in Indonesia, particularly in rivers. Data was acquisitioned by using the side scan sonar Starfish 450H and GNSS Trimble R8s positioning system. The interpretation was drawn by analysing related Dutch old maps and archives to understand the historical context of the survey findings. The result shows clay and silt sediment covering most of the riverbed and a number of objects, possibly shipwrecks, estimated as from the nineteenth century. The survey result has a medium to high accuracy. Thus, this method is able to serve as an efficient instrument for underwater archaeological research, especially in the low-visibility waters.
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