IDENTIFIKASI DEWA-DEWI AGAMA HINDU-BUDDHA SEBAGAI DEWA PELINDUNG PELAYARAN (IDENTIFICATION OF HINDU-BUDDHIST GODS AND GODDESSES AS PATRON DEITIES OF SEAFARING)

Ashar Murdihastomo
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Abstract

Pelayaran merupakan salah satu aktivitas yang mendukung perdagangan antara India dengan Cina. Jalur laut ini dipilih pada masa lampau dan menjadi populer di kalangan para pedagang saat jalur perdagangan darat mengalami hambatan yang tidak kunjung reda. Perkembangan teknologi dan pengetahuan pelayaran makin membuat aktivitas pelayaran makin mudah dan ramai. Namun, aktivitas ini tentu juga tidak dapat terhindar dari beberapa hambatan seperti badai ataupun perompak laut. Beberapa hal telah dilakukan oleh para pedagang dalam menghindari hambatan tersebut. Salah satunya adalah melalui aktivitas pemujaan terhadap dewa-dewi panteon dalam panteon Hindu-Buddha. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai pengumpulan data panteon yang dipuja sebagai dewa pelindung pelayaran. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga untuk mengetahui agama yang dominan dalam pemujaan dewa-dewi tersebut. Dalam upaya mendukung kajian ini, digunakanlah data sekunder yang berasal dari kajian pustaka. Data sekunder tersebut kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode analisis kontekstual agar dapat digunakan untuk menjawab pertanyaan yang diajukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dewa-dewi yang dipuja sebagai pelindung pelayaran terdiri atas dewa-dewi lokal dan asing. Selain itu, dewa-dewi dalam agama Buddha memiliki peran dominan dalam pemujaan tersebut dibandingkan dengan dewa-dewi agama Hindu.

 

 Seafaring is one of the activities that support trade between India and China. The sea routes were chosen in the past and became popular among traders when the land trade lanes encounters obstacles that never stop. The development of seafaring technology and knowledge increasingly made shipping activities more easy and crowded. However, this activity certainly could not be protected from obstructions such as storms and sea pirates. Some things have been done by traders in avoiding such obstacles. One of them was through the worship of gods and goddesses in the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon. This research was carried out as a data collection of pantheons worshiped as patron deities of seafarings. In addition, this study also aimed to find out the dominant religion in the worship of the gods. In an effort to support this study, secondary data from the literature review were used. The secondary data was then analyzed using the contextual analysis method so that it could be used to answer the questions raised. Research results indicates that the gods worshiped as patron deities of seafarings consisted of local and foreign gods. Furthermore, Buddhist pantheons had dominant role of worship compared to those of Hindus.

Keywords

Pelayaran, Budaya Maritim, panteon, Buddhisme, Hinduisme, dewa pelindung pelayaran (Seafaring, maritime culture, pantheon, Buddhisme, Hinduisme, patron deity of seafaring)

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