IDENTIFIKASI DEWA-DEWI AGAMA HINDU-BUDDHA SEBAGAI DEWA PELINDUNG PELAYARAN (IDENTIFICATION OF HINDU-BUDDHIST GODS AND GODDESSES AS PATRON DEITIES OF SEAFARING)
Pelayaran merupakan salah satu aktivitas yang mendukung perdagangan antara India dengan Cina. Jalur laut ini dipilih pada masa lampau dan menjadi populer di kalangan para pedagang saat jalur perdagangan darat mengalami hambatan yang tidak kunjung reda. Perkembangan teknologi dan pengetahuan pelayaran makin membuat aktivitas pelayaran makin mudah dan ramai. Namun, aktivitas ini tentu juga tidak dapat terhindar dari beberapa hambatan seperti badai ataupun perompak laut. Beberapa hal telah dilakukan oleh para pedagang dalam menghindari hambatan tersebut. Salah satunya adalah melalui aktivitas pemujaan terhadap dewa-dewi panteon dalam panteon Hindu-Buddha. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai pengumpulan data panteon yang dipuja sebagai dewa pelindung pelayaran. Selain itu, penelitian ini juga untuk mengetahui agama yang dominan dalam pemujaan dewa-dewi tersebut. Dalam upaya mendukung kajian ini, digunakanlah data sekunder yang berasal dari kajian pustaka. Data sekunder tersebut kemudian dianalisis menggunakan metode analisis kontekstual agar dapat digunakan untuk menjawab pertanyaan yang diajukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dewa-dewi yang dipuja sebagai pelindung pelayaran terdiri atas dewa-dewi lokal dan asing. Selain itu, dewa-dewi dalam agama Buddha memiliki peran dominan dalam pemujaan tersebut dibandingkan dengan dewa-dewi agama Hindu.
Â Seafaring is one of the activities that support trade between India and China. The sea routes were chosen in the past and became popular among traders when the land trade lanes encounters obstacles that never stop. The development of seafaring technology and knowledge increasingly made shipping activities more easy and crowded. However, this activity certainly could not be protected from obstructions such as storms and sea pirates. Some things have been done by traders in avoiding such obstacles. One of them was through the worship of gods and goddesses in the Hindu-Buddhist pantheon. This research was carried out as a data collection of pantheons worshiped as patron deities of seafarings. In addition, this study also aimed to find out the dominant religion in the worship of the gods. In an effort to support this study, secondary data from the literature review were used. The secondary data was then analyzed using the contextual analysis method so that it could be used to answer the questions raised. Research results indicates that the gods worshiped as patron deities of seafarings consisted of local and foreign gods. Furthermore, Buddhist pantheons had dominant role of worship compared to those of Hindus.
Acri, Andrea. 2018. â€œMaritime Buddhism.â€ Oxford University Press USA. Retrieved (ttps://oxfordre.com/religion/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.001.0001/acrefore-9780199340378-e-638).
Allen, Michael. 1975. The Cult of Kumari: Virgin Worship in Nepal. Kathmandu: Tribhuvan University Press.
Bautze-Picron, Claudine. 2014. â€œBuddhist Images From Padang Lawas Region and The South Asian Connection.â€ Pp. 107â€“28 in History of Padang Lawas: Societies of Padang Lawas (mid-9th - 13th Century CE), edited by D. Perret. Paris: Cahier dâ€™Archipel 43.
Behrendt, Kurt. 2014. â€œTibet and India: Buddhist Traditions and Transformations.â€ The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin LXXI(3).
Bopearachchi, Osmund. 2014. â€œSri Lanka and Maritime Trade: Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara as the Protector of Mariners.â€ P. 296 in Asian Encounters: Exploring Connected Histories, edited by U. Dhar, Parul Pandya and Singh. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brancaccio, Pia. 2011. The Buddhist Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. Leiden: Brill.
Buswell, Robert E., ed. 2004. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
Coedes, George. 2017. Asia Tenggara Masa Hindu-Buddha. 3rd ed. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia.
Colas, A. and B. Mabee. 2010. Book Review: Mercenaries, Pirates, Bandits and Empires: Private Violence in Historical Context. Vol. 23. edited by A. dan B. M. Colas. New York: Columbia University Press.
Cruijsen, Thomas, Arlo Griffiths, and Marijke Klokke. 2012. â€œThe Cult of the Buddhist Dharani Deity Mahapratisara along the Maritime Silk Route.â€ Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 35(1â€“2):71â€“157.
Dit, PCBM. 2017. â€œArca Buddha Tertua Itu Kini Berstatus Cagar Budaya Peringkat Nasional.â€ Retrieved (https://kebudayaan.kemdikbud.go.id/ditpcbm/arca-buddha-tertua-itu-kini-berstatus-cagar-budaya-peringkat-nasional/).
Gopal, Mohan. 2017. â€œThe Silk Road-a Cultural Thread Connecting Asia.â€ Japan SPOTLIGHT 56â€“59.
Gosh, B. 1987. â€œBuddha Dipankara Twentyfourth Predecessor of Gautama.â€ Bulletin of Tibetology 2:33â€“38.
Gupte, R. S. 1972. Iconography of the Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains. Bombay: D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co. Private Ltd.
Hapsari, Retnanigtyas Dwi. 2016. â€œAksi Bajak Laut Pada Masa Kuno.â€ Retrieved (http://www.sejarahdk.com/2016/04/kisah-bajak-laut-pada-masa-kuno.html#).
Hong, Cai-Zhen. 2015. â€œA Study of Spice Trade from the Quanzhou Maritime Silk Road in Song and Yuan Dynasties.â€ in 2nd Annual International Conference on Social Science and Contemporary Humanity Development, edited by J.-M. Chen. Amsterdam: Atlantis Press.
Jordaan, Roy E. 1997. â€œTara and Nyai Lara Kidul.â€ Asian Folklore Studies 56:285â€“312.
Karluk, Sadik Ridvan dan Suleyman Cem Karaman. 2014. â€œBridging Civilizations From Asia to Europe: The Silk Road.â€ Chinese Business Review 13(12):730â€“39.
Kumar, Amit. 2019. â€œAndaman and Nicobar Islands: Policy of Masterly Inactivity and Benign Neglect to Proactive Development.â€ View Point, 1â€“4.
Lawler, Andrew. 2014. â€œSailing Sinbadâ€™s Seas.â€ Science 344(6191).
Levi, Sylvain. 1930. â€œManimekhala, a Divinity of the Sea.â€ The Indian Historical Quarterly VI(4):597â€“614.
Maharjan, Bijju. 2019. â€œHarsisiddhi Temple.â€
Mark, Joshua J. 2018. â€œSilk Road - Ancient History Encyclopedia.â€ Retrieved (https://www.ancient.eu/Silk_Road/).
Mckinnon, E. Edwards. 1988. â€œBeyond Serandib: A Note on Lambri at The Northern Tip of Aceh.â€ Jurnal Indonesia 46:103â€“21.
Mevissen, Gerd J. .. 1999. â€œImages of Mahapratisara in Bengal: Their Iconographic Links With Javanese, Central Asian and East Asian Images.â€ Journal of Bengal Art 4.
Mishra, Umakant. 2013. â€œMultiple Gods, Goddessess and Buddhas: Locating Buddhism in the Religious Dynamics of Early Medieval Orissa.â€ Pp. 194â€“209 in Imaging Odisha, edited by H. Kulke. Orissa: Prafulla Pathagar.
Modiri, Mehdi and Alireza Abbasi Semnani. 2017. â€œMaritime Silk Road or Spice Road (Cultural and Civilizational Opportunities).â€ in Eleventh United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names. New York: United Nations.
Monius, Anne E. 2001. Imagining a Place for Buddhism: Literary Culture and Religious Community in Tamil-Speaking South India. New York: Oxford University Press.
Naidu, K. Manjusree dan Sankar Mukherjee. 2014. â€œCultural Relations Between India and Japan: A Descriptive Study.â€ Pp. 25â€“39 in India-Japan Relations: Culture, Religion and Regional Integration, edited by G. J. Reddy. Tirupati: UGC Centre of Southeast Asian & Pacific Studies, Sri Venkateswara University.
Overmyer, Daniel L. 1988. â€œMessenger, Savior, and Revolutionary: Maitreya in Chinese Popular Religious Literature of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.â€ in Maitreya, The Future Buddha, edited by A. dan H. H. Sponberg. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pattanaik, Devdutt. 2018. â€œThe Goddess of Sailors.â€ Devdutt.Com.
Poesponegoro, Marwati Djoened; Notosusanto, Nugroho, ed. 2010. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia II: Zaman Kuno. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Prange, Sebastian R. 2017. â€œAsian Piracy.â€ Oxforde.Com.
Rao, Gopinatha. 1916. Elements of Hindu Iconography. Madras: The Law Printing House.
Reichle, Natasha. 2007. Violence and Serenity: Late Buddhist Sculpture from Indonesia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Reid, Struan. 1993. The Silk and Spice Routes: Explorating by Sea. UNESCO Pub. Halifax: Maritext Limited.
Reid, Struan. 1994. The Silk and Spice Routes: Inventions and Trade. UNESCO Pub. Halifax: Maritext Limited.
Shakya, Min Bahadur. 1994. â€œThe Iconography of Nepalese Buddhism.â€ 1â€“214.
Sirinya. 2015. â€œMahajanaka Is Saved by the Goddess Manimekhala Wat Yai Intharam, Chonburi.â€ Retrieved (https://www.sirinyas-thailand.de/2015/12/13/a-jataka-tale-the-story-of-prince-mahajanaka/mahajanaka-is-saved-by-the-goddess-manimekhala-wat-yai-intharam-chonburi/).
Somadeva, Raj. 2009. â€œSri Lanka in the Indian Ocean World: A Historical Appraisal.â€ Pp. 1â€“6 in From Silk Route to Cyber Space, edited by S. T. Colombo: Sri Lanka Customs.
Strong, John S. 2004. Relics of the Buddha. New Jersey: Princenton University Press.
Teh, Pek Yen dan Hong Ching Goh. 2016. â€œThe Discovery of Silk Route: Cultural and Technology Communication Between China, Korea and Japan.â€ Geogragia: Malaysian Journal of Society and Space 12(13):135â€“44.
Tripati, Sila. 2009. â€œCoastal Structural Remains on the East Coast of India: Evidence of Maritime Activities and Their Significances.â€ Pp. 695â€“703 in Saundaryashri: Studies of Indian History, Archaeology, Literature and Philosophy, edited by Reddy. New Delhi: Sharada Publishing House.
Tripati, Sila. 2011. â€œAncient Maritime Trade of the Eastern Indian Littoral.â€ Current Science 100(7):1076â€“86.
Tripati, Sila. 2017. â€œSeafaring Archaeology of the East Coast of India and Southeast Asia During the Early Historical Period.â€ Ancient Asia 8(7):1â€“22.
Utomo, Bambang Budi. 2016. Warisan Bahari Indonesia. Jakarta: Yasayan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
Verman, Sanghamitra Rai. 2012. â€œTrade and Religion: Trade and Its Role in the Spread of Buddhism in China from India (1st to 6th Century C.E.).â€ Journal of Eurasian Studies IV(3):9â€“20.
Weatherford, Jack. 2018. â€œThe Silk Route from Land to Sea.â€ Humanities 7(32):1â€“9.
Yogi, Ida Bagus Putu Prajna. 2018. â€œPeran Pemukiman Pada Abad Ke-14 Hingga Abad Ke-20 Pada DAS Pawan, Kalimantan Barat Dengan Penerapan Model Dendritik.â€ Naditira Widya 12(1):39â€“54.
Zuhdi, Susanto. 2018. â€œShipping Routes and Spice Trade in Southeast Sulawesi During the 17th and 18th Century.â€ Journal of Maritime Studies and National Integration 2(1):31â€“44.
Copyright (c) 2019 Naditira Widya
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Retained Rights/Terms and Conditions of Publication
Â 1. As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
- make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use;
- make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g. via an e-mail list or list server);
- present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such meeting;
- for your employer, if the article is a â€˜work for hireâ€™, made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g. training);
- retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in the article;
- include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially);
- use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of the article in the journal); and prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal;
- may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the article, material extracted from the article, or derivative works for the authorâ€™s personal use or for company use, provided that the source and the copyright notice are indicated, the copies are not used in any way that implies Naditira Widya endorsement of a product or service of any employer, and the copies themselves are not offered for sale.
All copies, print or electronic, or other use of the paper or article must include the appropriate bibliographic citation for the articleâ€™s publication in the journal.
2. Requests from third parties
Although authors are permitted to re-use all or portions of the article in other works, this does not include granting third-party requests for reprinting, republishing, or other types of re-use. Requests for all uses not included above, including the authorization of third parties to reproduce or otherwise use all or part of the article (including figures and tables), should be referred to Naditira Widya by going to our website at http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id
Â 3. Author Online Use
- Personal Servers. Authors and/or their employers shall have the right to post the accepted version of articles pre-print version of the article, or revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on their own personal servers or the servers of their institutions or employers without permission from Naditira Widya, provided that the posted version includes a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice and, when published, a full citation to the original publication, including a link to the article abstract in the journal homepage. Authors shall not post the final, published versions of their papers;
- Classroom or Internal Training Use. An author is expressly permitted to post any portion of the accepted version of his/her own articles on the authorâ€™s personal web site or the servers of the authorâ€™s institution or company in connection with the authorâ€™s teaching, training, or work responsibilities, provided that the appropriate copyright, credit, and reuse notices appear prominently with the posted material. Examples of permitted uses are lecture materials, course packs, e-reserves, conference presentations, or in-house training courses;
- Electronic Preprints. Before submitting an article to an Naditira Widya, authors frequently post their manuscripts to their own web site, their employerâ€™s site, or to another server that invites constructive comment from colleagues. Upon submission of an article to Naditira Widya, an author is required to transfer copyright in the article to Naditira Widya, and the author must update any previously posted version of the article with a prominently displayed Naditira Widya copyright notice. Upon publication of an article by the Naditira Widya, the author must replace any previously posted electronic versions of the article with either (1) the full citation to the work with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) or link to the article abstract in Naditira Widya homepage, or (2) the accepted version only (not the final, published version), including the Naditira Widya copyright notice and full citation, with a link to the final, published article in journal homepage.
4. Articles in Press (AiP) service
Naditira Widya may choose to publish an abstract or portions of the paper before we publish it in the journal. Please contact our Production department immediately if you do not want us to make any such prior publication for any reason, including disclosure of a patentable invention.
5. Author/Employer Rights
If you are employed and prepared the article on a subject within the scope of your employment, the copyright in the article belongs to your employer as a work-for-hire. In that case, Naditira Widya assumes that when you sign this Form, you are authorized to do so by your employer and that your employer has consented to the transfer of copyright, to the representation and warranty of publication rights, and to all other terms and conditions of this Form. If such authorization and consent has not been given to you, an authorized representative of your employer should sign this Form as the Author.
Â 6. Naditira Widya Copyright Ownership
It is the formal policy of Naditira Widya to own the copyrights to all copyrightable material in its technical publications and to the individual contributions contained therein, in order to protect the interests of the Naditira Widya, its authors and their employers, and, at the same time, to facilitate the appropriate re-use of this material by others. Naditira Widya distributes its technical publications throughout the world and does so by various means such as hard copy, microfiche, microfilm, and electronic media. It also abstracts and may translate its publications, and articles contained therein, for inclusion in various compendiums, collective works, databases and similar publications.
Naditira Widya byÂ Balai Arkeologi Kalimantan SelatanÂ is licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available atÂ http://naditirawidya.kemdikbud.go.id/