AN ETHNOGRAPHY ON THE WEDGE SEA HARE IN MACTAN ISLAND, THE PHILIPPINES (ETNOGRAFI TENTANG KELINCI LAUT DI PULAU MACTAN, FILIPINA)

Takashi Tsuji
| Abstract views: 26 | views: 2

Abstract

The wedge sea hare (Dolabella auricularia) is a mollusk species found in tidal flats and is consumed as food around the Philippines. The practice of consuming its internal organs is probably found only on the Mactan Island. The Problem of this study is to clarify why people collect the internal organs of wedge sea hare. The objective is a gleaner who have special skills to identify the sea hare burrows. Participatory observation and measurement method were employed for this research. As a result, it found that the gleaners precisely identify occupied sea hare burrows using unique skills, and to remove the edible internal organs from the disposable body. Local people regard the internal organs as a nutrition. As a conclusion, this practice must be an adaptation to an environment where vegetable protein is scarce due to a limestone-based soil unsuitable for agriculture. Thus, the role of the wedge sea hare in a unique culture was also developed.

Kelinci laut (Dolabella auricularia) adalah spesies moluska yang ditemukan di dataran pasang surut dan dikonsumsi sebagai makanan di sekitar Filipina. Praktik mengkonsumsi organ internalnya mungkin hanya ditemukan di Pulau Mactan. Masalah penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan mengapa orang mengumpulkan organ internal kelinci laut. Tujuannya adalah seorang pengumpul yang memiliki keterampilan khusus untuk mengidentifikasi lubang kelinci laut. Metode pengamatan dan pengukuran partisipatif digunakan untuk penelitian ini. Sebagai hasilnya, ditemukan bahwa para pengumpul secara tepat mengidentifikasi lubang yang didiami kelinci laut dengan menggunakan keterampilan unik, dan mengeluarkan organ internal yang dapat dimakan dari tubuh yang bisa dibuang. Masyarakat lokal menganggap organ dalam sebagai nutrisi. Sebagai kesimpulan, praktik ini harus merupakan adaptasi terhadap lingkungan di mana protein nabati langka karena tanah berbahan dasar batugamping yang tidak cocok untuk pertanian. Dengan demikian, peran kelinci laut dalam budaya unik juga dikembangkan.

Keywords

wedge sea hare, internal organs, food culture, gleaning activity, the Philippines (kelinci laut, organ dalam, budaya makanan, kegiatan pengumpulan, Filipina)

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abbott, R. Tucker, and S. Peter Dance (translated by Habe Tadashige and Takashi Okutani). 1985. Compendium of Seashells. Tokyo: Heibonsha. (in Japanese)

Akimichi, Tomoya. 1988. Ethnology of Sea People: Beyond Coral Reefs. Tokyo: Japan Broadcast Publishing Co., Ltd. (in Japanese)

Alcina, Francisco (translated, edited and annotated by Cantius Kobak and Lucio Gutiérrez). 2004. History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands, Vol. II, Manila: UST Publishing House.

Alegre, Edilberto, and Doreen Fernandez. 1991. Kinilaw: A Philippine cuisine of freshness. Makati City: Bookmark.

Alves, Rômulo. 2009. “Fauna Used in Popular Medicine in Northeast Brazil”. Journal of Ethnobiology

and Ethnomedicine 5: 1–11.

Alves, Rômulo, and Humberto Alves. 2011. “The Faunal Drugstore: Animal-Based Remedies Used in Traditional Medicines in Latin America”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicines 7(9). Accessed on January 4, 2019 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3060860/).

Alves, Rômulo, Ierecê Rosa, Nivaldo Leo Néto, and Roberto Voeks. 2012. “Animals for the Gods: Magical and Religious Faunal Use and Trade in Brazil”. Human Ecology 40: 751–780.

Alves, Rômulo, Ellori Mota, and Thelma Dias. 2018. “Use and Commercialization of Animals as Decoration”. Pp. 261–275 in Ethnozoology: Animals in Our Lives, edited by Rômulo Alves and Ulysses Albuquerque. Oxford: Academic Press.

Bain, Mary (translated by Adachi Yoshiko). 1987. Full Fathom Five. Tokyo: Keiso Shobo. (in Japanese)

Bautista, Angel. 2003. Shell Ornamentation of La Purísima Conceptión Parish Church, Guiuan, Eastern Samar. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

Chapman, Margaret. 1987. “Women’s Fishing in Oceania”. Human Ecology 15: 267–288.

Chikamori, Masashi. 1989. “The Dead and Fishing Hook: Ethnoarchaeology of Puka Puka Atoll”. Pp. 181–200 in World of Archaeology, edited by Laboratory of Ethnoarchaeology, Keio University. Tokyo: Shinjinbutsuohraisha. (in Japanese)

David, Nicholas and Carol Kramer. 2001. Ethnoarchaeology in Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dias, Thelma, Nivaldo Neto, and Rômulo Alves. 2011. “Mollusks in the Marine Curio and Souvenir Trade in NE Brazil: Species Composition and Implications for Their Conservation and Management”. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 2393–2405.

Evangelista, Alfred. 2001. Soul Boat: A Filipino Journey of Self-Discovery. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts.

Floren, Adonis. 2003. The Philippine Shell Industry with Special Focus on Mactan, Cebu. Accessed on December 31, 2018 (http://www.oneocean.org/download/db_files/philippine_shell_industry.pdf).

Fox, Robert. 1970. The Tabon Caves: Archaeological Explorations and Excavations on Palawan Island, Philippines. Manilla: National Museum.

Garong, Ame. 2013. Ancient Filipino Diet: Reconstructing Diet from Human Remains Evacuated in the Philippines. Cebu City: University of San Carlos University.

Gössling, Stefan, Timo Kunkel, Kim Schumacher, and Maiken Zilger. 2004. “Use of Molluscs, Fish, and Other Marine Taxa by Tourism in Zanzibar, Tanzania”. Biodiversity & Conservation 13: 2623–2639.

Goto, Akira. 2001. “Handicraft Production in the Visayas Region of the Philippines”. Miyagi Academy Women’s University Humanities and Social Studies 10: 29–54. (in Japanese)

Goto, Akira. 2003a. “Circulation and Crafts of Shells in the Visayas District, the Philippines”. Pp. 99–106 in Ethnic Network on the Coastal Areas of the East and South China Sea and the Ethnic Network, edited by Masataka Tawa. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science 2001 Grant for Scientific Research. (in Japanese)

Goto, A. 2003b. Mongoloid crossed the Sea. Tokyo: Kodansha LTD. (in Japanese)

Goto, A. 2010. Japanese Viewed from the Sea: Japanese History Read by the Sea People. Tokyo: Kodansha LTD. (in Japanese)

Hirata, Masahiro, Takashi Tsuji, Kenji Uchida, Hideo Motoshima, and Junko Kimura. 2015. “Spread and Accepted Forms of Milk Culture into Non-Milk Cultural Sphere of the Philippines: From the Case Study of Fisherfolk Households in Cordova, Mactan Island, Philippines”. Milk Science 64: 191–199. (in Japanese)

Iida, Taku, and Nawa, Jun. 2005. “Knowledge of Shellfish on the Coast of Kasari Bay, Northern Amami Island: A Description of Human-Nature

Relationship through the Elicitation Method”. Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History 123: 153–183. (in Japanese)

Kato, Shoichi (ed.). 2009. Opisthobranchs Illustrated. Tokyo: Seibundo Shinkosha Publishing Co., Ltd. (in Japanese)

Koizumi, Takeo. 1994. Odd and Rare Foods. Tokyo: Chuokoronsha. (in Japanese)

Kronen, Mecki. 2002. “Women’s Fishing in Tonga: Case Studies from Ha’apai and Vava’u Islands”. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 11: 17–23.

Kubo, Hirofumi, and Kurozumi, Taiji. 1995. Molluscs of Okinawa. Okinawa: Okinawa Shuppan. (in Japanese)

Kumakura, Fumiko. 1998. “Women Walking in the Sea: Coastal Gleaning Activity in Kudaka Island, Okinawa”. Pp.192–216 in Perspective of Contemporary Folklore, Vol. 1: Folk Techniques, edited by Toru Shinohara. Tokyo: Asakura Publishing Co. Ltd. (in Japanese)

Laureta, Liberato. 2008. Compendium of the Economically Important Seashells in Panay, Philippines. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press.

Lee, Eung, and Jun Takeda. 1999. “Marine Resources on Tidal Flats, Part II: The Traditional Fishing-Gleaning Activities in Hampyong Bay, South Korea”. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University 84: 11–27. (in Japanese)

Leo Néto, Nivaldo, Roberto Voeks, Thelma Dias, and Rômulo Alves. 2012. “Mollusks of Candomblé: Symbolic and Ritualistic Importance”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8 (10). Accessed on January 5, 2019 (https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4269-8-10).

Malinowski, Bronislaw (translated by Masuda Yoshio). 2010. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. Tokyo: Kodansha. (in Japanese)

Matsui, Takeshi. 1983. A Cognitive Anthropology of Nature. Tokyo: Doubutsusha. (in Japanese)

Matsui, Takeshi. 1989. A New Ethnography of Ryukyu. Kyoto: Jimbun Shoin. (in Japanese)

Matsui, Takeshi. 1998. “The World of Minor Subsistence: Labor, Nature, Body in the Folk World”. Pp. 247–267 in Perspective of Contemporary Folklore, Vol. 1: Folk Techniques, edited by Toru Shinohara. Tokyo: Asakura Publishing Co. Ltd. (in Japanese)

Matthews, Elizabeth, and Evelyn Oiterong. 1995. “Marine Species Collected by Women in Palau, Micronesia”. Micronesia 28: 77–90.

Mori, Koichi. 2004. An Introduction to Archaeology from the Sea. Dialogue with Ancient People. Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten. (in Japanese)

Municipality of Cordova. 2004. Municipality of Cordova Comprehensive Municipal Profile: Including Plans, Programs, and Accomplishments Province. MS, Cebu: Municipality of Cordova.

Municipality of Cordova. 2014. Ecological Profile 2014. MS, Cebu: Municipality of Cordova.

Naora, Nobuo. 1976. Cultural History of Things and Human: Fishing Hook. Tokyo: Hosei University Press. (in Japanese)

Nijman Vincent, Denise Spaan, and K. Anne-Isola Nekaris. 2015. “Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia”. PLoS One 10. Accessed on February 16, 2019 (https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0140593).

Nishida, Alberto, Nivaldo Nordi, and Rômulo Alves. 2006a. “The Lunar-Tide Cycle Viewed by Crustacean and Mollusc Gatherers in the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil and Their Influence in Collection Attitudes”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2 (1). Accessed on January 7, 2019 (https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-4269-2-1).

Nishida, Alberto, Nivaldo Nordi, and Rômulo Alves. 2006b. “Molluscs Production Associated to Lunar-Tide Cycle: A Case Study in Paraíba State under Ethnoecology Viewpoint”. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2 (28). Accessed on January 7, 2019 (https://ethnobiomed.biomedcentral.com/ articles/10.1186/1746-4269-2- 28).

Ono, Rintaro. 2011. Area Study of Maritime World: Ethnoarchaeology of Sea People and Fishing. Kyoto: Kyoto University Press. (in Japanese)

Pepito, Ador, Gloria Delan, Manabu Asakawa, Letecia Ami, Emelia Yap, Minerva Olympia, Kaori Yasui, Aurelia Maningo, Rachel Rica, and Ma. Helian

Lamayo. 2015. “Nutritional Quality of the Egg Mass Locally Known as ‘Lukot’ of the Wedge Seahare Dolabella auricularia (Lightfoot, 1786)”. Tropical Technology Journal 19: 1–6.

Polanyi, Michael (translated by Takahashi Isao). 2003. The Tacit Dimension. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo. (in Japanese)

Rau, Norberto. 1979. “Small-Scale Fishing Methods Used around Cebu City, Philippines”. The Philippine Scientist 16: 1–27.

Research and Information Division Office of the Secretary, Department of Commerce and Industry. 1967. The Philippine Shellcraft Industry. Manila: Research and Information Division Office of the Secretary, Department of Commerce and Industry.

Rochers, Kim. 1992. “Women’s Fishing on Kosrae: A Description of Past and Present Methods”. Micronesia 25: 1–22.

Safer, Jane, and Francis Gill (translated by Sugiura Mitsuru). 1986. Spirals from the Sea: An Anthropological Look at Shells. Tokyo: Tsukiji Shokan. (in Japanese)

Sato, Hiroyuki. 2010. Ethnoarchaeology of Northern Hunters. Sapporo: Hokkaido Publication Project Center. (in Japanese)

Scales, Helen (translated by Hayashi Yumiko). 2016. Spiral in Time: The Secret Life and Curious Afterlife of Seashells. Tokyo: Tsukiji Shokan. (in Japanese)

Schoppe, Sabine. 2000a. Echinoderms of the Philippines: A Guide to Common Shallow Water Sea Stars, Brittle Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers and Feather Stars. Singapore: Times Editions.

Schoppe, Sabine. 2000b. “Sea Cucumber Fishery in the Philippines”. SPC Beche-de mer Information Bulletin 13: 10–12.

Schoppe, Sabine, J. Gatus, P. Milan, and R. Seronay. 1998. “Gleaning Activities on the Islands of Apid, Digyo and Mahaba, Inopacan, Leyte, Philippines”. The Philippine Scientist 35: 130–140.

Seo, Tomoki, and Jean Tanangonan. 2016. “Changes in Quantity and Species Composition of Tidal Flat Inhabiting Mollusks Sold at the Local Markets of Visayas Islands, Philippines”. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture of Kindai University 50: 25–35. (in Japanese)

Singh, Sandeep, and Veikila Vuki. 2015. “An Ecological Study of the Sea Hare, Dolabella auricularia, on the Southeastern Coast of Viti Levu, Fiji”. SPC Women in Fisheries Information Bulletin 26: 17–23.

Shinohara, Toru. 1998. “Introduction: What is folk technology?”. Pp. 1–44 in Perspective of Contemporary Folklore, Vol. 1: Folk Techniques, edited by

Toru Shinohara. Tokyo: Asakura Publishing Co. Ltd. (in Japanese)

Shirai, Shohei. 1997a. Cultural History of Things and Human: Shellfish I. Tokyo: Hosei University Press. (in Japanese)

Shirai, Shohei. 1997b. Cultural History of Things and Human: Shellfish II. Tokyo: Hosei University Press. (in Japanese)

Shirai, Shohei. 1997c. Cultural History of Things and Human: Shellfish III. Tokyo: Hosei University Press. (in Japanese)

Stearns, Robert. 1889. “Ethno-Conchology: A Study of Primitive Money”. The Report of the National Museum, 1887: 297–334.

Takeda, Jun (ed.). 1995. Explanation for Special Exhibition, Gifts from the Sea; Shellfish: Human and Nature over a Shellfish. MS, The Museum of Human and Nature Activities, Hyogo, Japan. (in Japanese)

Takeda, Jun. 1996. “Human and Tidal Flat”. Harmony 15: 1–2. (in Japanese)

Takeda, Jun. 2001. “Fishing-Gleaning Activities on Reef Flats and/or Reef Margins in the Coral Ecosystem in Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)”. Kagoshima University Research-Center for the Pacific Islands, Occasional Papers 34: 117–127.

Takeda, Jun. 2004. “Shells and Humans as Viewed from Local-Resource Utilization and Culture”. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University 89: 31–53. (in Japanese)

Takeda, Jun, Tsutomu Igarashi, Kyoung Cho, and Eung Lee. 1998. “Marine Resources on Tidal Flats, Part I: The Traditional Fishing -Gleaning Strategies and Diversity in Ariake Sea”. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University 83: 79–98. (in Japanese)

Takeda, Jun, and Eung Lee. 2000. “Marine Resources on Tidal Flats, Part III: Sustainable Resources Management in Oyster-Gleaning Activities in Hampyong Bay, South Korea”. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University 85: 45–62. (in Japanese)

Takekawa, Daisuke. 1996. “Eyes to See a Turban Shell”. Monthly Minpaku 20: 15–17. (in Japanese)

Thomas, Nicholas. 1991. Entangled Objects: Exchange, Material Culture, and Colonialism in the Pacific. London: Harvard University Press.

Tsuji, Takashi. 2007a. “A Research Note about Moray Fishing in Mactan Island, Cebu, the Philippines”. Humanities and Sciences 22: 141–151. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2007b. “Coastal Gleaning and Resource Utilization of Sipunculus robustus and Dolabella auricularia in Mactan Island, Philippines”. Tropical Ecology Letters 68: 6–12. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2013a. “The Technique and Ecology Surrounding Moray Fishing - A Case Study of Moray Trap Fishing on Mactan Island, Philippines”. Pp.167–181 in Prehistoric Marine Resource Use in the Indo-Pacific Region, edited by Rintaro Ono, David Addison, and Alex Morrison. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Tsuji, Takashi. 2013b. “Shell Gleaning Activity and Folk Knowledge among the Molbog People in Palawan Island, the Philippines”. Annual Papers of the Anthropological Institute 3: 97–109. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2015. “A Case Study of Breath-Hold Diving Fishermen on Mactan Island, Cebu, the Philippines”. Journal of Socio Information Studies 14: 63–79. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2016. “The Actual Situation of Livestock and Milk Utilization in the Subsistence Activity and the Utilization of Biological Resources in Coastal Areas of the Philippines”. Pp. 125–137 in Record of Open Symposium: Domestication and Milk Utilization Based on Regional Characteristics-Using the Tani Hypothesis Surrounding the Start of Milking as a Clue, edited by Masahiro Hirata. Obihiro: May 16–17, 2015 Symposium Secretariat. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2018. “A Report about Distribution of Agricultural Products in Cordova, Mactan Island, the Philippines”. Asia Area Study 1: 77-97. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2019. “Gleaning Activity and Food Culture of Wedge Sea Hare (Dolabella auricularia): A Case Study in Cordova, Mactan Island, Cebu, the Philippines. Humanities and Sciences 45: 37-46. (in Japanese)

Tsuji, Takashi. 2020 in press. Gathering Internal Organs of the Wedge Sea Hare (Dolabella auricularia): A Case on Mactan Island, Cebu, the Philippines. People and Culture in Oceania 35 (inpress).

Ueda, Makoto. 2016. Qualification of Money: Civilization History of a Cowrie. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo Ltd. (in Japanese)

Utsumi, Fujio. 1956. Primary Colors Encyclopedia of Coastal Organisms. Tokyo: Hoikusha Publishers Co., Ltd. (in Japanese)

Utsumi, Fujio, Saburo Nishimura, and Katsumi Suzuki. 1971. Coastal Organisms. Tokyo: Hoikusha Publishers Co., Ltd. (in Japanese)

Vitales, Timothy. 2013. “Beyond Subsistence: Cultural Usages and Significance of Baler Shells in Philippine History”. Pp.123–139 in Prehistoric Marine Resource Use in the Indo-Pacific Region, edited by Rintaro Ono, David Addison, and Alex Morrison. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Waselkov, Gregory. 1987. “Shellfish Gathering and Shell Midden Archaeology”. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 10: 93–210.

Wells, S.M. 1989. “Impacts of the Precious Shell Harvest and Trade: Conservation of Rare or Fragile Resources”. Pp. 443–454 in Marine Invertebrate

Fisheries: Their Assessment and Management, edited by John Caddy. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publication.

Williams, M., M. Nandeesha, V. Corral, and E. Tech (eds.). 1998. Asian Fisheries Society International Symposium on Women in Asian Fisheries. Chiang Mai: ICLARM-World Fish Center.

Wood, E. and S. Wells. 1995. “The Shell Trade: A Case for Sustainable Utilization”. Pp. 41–52 in The Conservation Biology of Molluscs, edited by E. Alison Kay. Cambridge: IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Yamazato, Junichi. 1997. Amulet and Charm in Okinawa: A Study of Charms. Tokyo: Daiichi Shobo Co. LTD. (in Japanese)

Yamada, Atsumi. 2013. World History of Pearls: Five Thousand Years of Wealth and Ambition. Tokyo: Chuokoronsha, Inc. (in Japanese)

Yanagita, Kunio. 1967. Sea Road. Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo Ltd. (in Japanese)

Yano, Takao. 2000. “Shell-Gathering in a Javanese Coastal Village”. Waseda Journal of Human Sciences 13 (1): 75–99. (in Japanese)

Copyright (c) 2019 Naditira Widya
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.